Ethereum Price Prediction 2023-2032
- Ethereum Price Prediction 2023 – up to $2,316
- Ethereum Price Prediction 2026 – up to $7,554
- Ethereum Price Prediction 2029 – up to $24,736
- Ethereum Price Prediction 2032 – up to $76,950
“The Merge did not change anything for holders/users.” Is that a fact? Crypto prices are unlikely to see a major recovery without new or returning investors bringing cash back into the market. Unless the retail people enter the market, Ethereum won’t strongly blast above ATH. Maybe something sparks retail, though, like Coinbase, NFT marketplace, etc. There is also much wealth out there in the hands of whales.
How much is Ethereum worth?
The Ethereum price today is $2,043, with a 24-hour trading volume of $8,140,678,840. Ethereum is up 0.25% in the last 24 hours. The current CoinMarketCap ranking is #2, with a live market cap of $245,624,994,176. It has a circulating supply of 120,245,955 ETH coins and the max. supply is not available.
Ethereum price analysis: ETH Rallies above $2,000 as bulls remain in control
- Ethereum price analysis shows a bullish trend in both the short and long terms.
- ETH is at $2,043 at the time of writing, up from its intraday low of $2,020.
- Bulls remain in control as buying pressure remains strong.
Ethereum price analysis for 30 November shows a clear break above the key resistance level of $2,000. ETH is now trading at $2,043, with an increase of 0.25% in the past few hours. The bulls seem to be gaining control, despite a brief dip below $2,030 earlier in the day. The support level at $2,020 has held strong and ETH is likely to remain above it in the short term. To continue its rally, the bulls must break past the resistance levels of $2,100 and $2,150.
Ethereum price analysis 1-day chart: Bulls remain firmly in control
The daily Ethereum price analysis is confirming an upward price movement for the day, as the bulls are struggling to make a comeback on the price chart again. Although the cryptocurrency value underwent a severe decline in the past few days, today’s market trend supports buyers. The price is now at the $2,043 position as the green candlestick has returned. The Fibonacci retracement levels also show that ETH has room for further growth, with the next key resistance level at $2,100.
The Stochastic RSI has also moved up from the 50 levels and is at 56.68, indicating that bulls are struggling to continue their momentum. The MACD is currently in positive territory, with a bullish crossover of the signal line. This indicates that ETH might be preparing for a new bull run. The Bollinger bands are also signaling a bullish trend, as the price is now trading above the middle band. The lower is present at the $1,940 position and is likely to provide strong support if the price moves down.
Ethereum price analysis 4-hour price chart: ETH heads back above $2,000 as bullish trend revives
The four-hour Ethereum price analysis confirms that the market has followed a bullish trend for the past few hours. Further recovery in ETH/USD value is to follow if the bulls continue making their progress. The 20-EMA and the 50-EMA are both showing a bullish crossover, with the 20-EMA now at $2,039.
A bullish crossover has occurred on the MACD. A bullish crossover occurs when the MACD blue line crosses the Orange signal line in an upward direction. The occurrence of a bullish crossover on the MACD shows that the token has gained bullish momentum on the hourly chart. The Bollinger bands are also showing a bullish trend, with the lower band at $2,007 and the upper band at $2,067. The RSI line is currently making a higher-high and higher-low pattern suggesting that it might give a positive crossover above 14 SMA; the stochastic RSI is trading near 40 RSI points.
Ethereum price analysis conclusion
Overall, the Ethereum price analysis suggests that ETH is likely to maintain its current uptrend soon as more investors enter the market and increase buying pressure. The resistance at $2,100 may prove to be a challenge for the bulls; however, if they can break it, then we could see ETH reaching new heights shortly.
Ethereum Recent News/Opinions
Ethereum’s Value on the Rise as Large Investors Increase Holdings
In the dynamic world of cryptocurrency, Ethereum (ETH) has recently witnessed a notable increase in its value, attributable in part to significant acquisitions by large-scale investors, commonly referred to as “whales.” These investors have been gradually accumulating Ethereum, with a particular interest in addresses holding upwards of 10,000 ETH tokens. This trend of accumulation was evident as of early November when over a thousand addresses were reported to hold this amount or more.
This uptick in whale activity has had a palpable impact on Ethereum’s market price. This surge in value provided some respite to retail holders of Ethereum, who had previously expressed concerns over the cryptocurrency’s sluggish performance compared to other altcoins. If this trend of accumulation by large investors continues, it could potentially lead to further stabilization of Ethereum’s price, possibly exceeding the $2,000 mark and even reaching $2,100.
However, a different sentiment is observed among retail Ethereum holders, many of whom have been reluctant to increase their holdings. This suggests a lack of confidence in the short-term price trajectory of Ethereum among this group of investors.
Another critical metric in understanding Ethereum’s current market position is the Market Value to Realized Value (MVRV) Z-score, which recently stood at 0.40. This indicator helps in assessing whether a cryptocurrency is undervalued or overvalued by comparing the market cap to the realized cap. With the MVRV Z-score nearing 0.40, it implies that Ethereum is possibly undervalued at present.
Long-term holders of Ethereum may find themselves in a profitable position if they maintain their holdings. In the short term, the Seller Exhaustion Constant, a metric analyzing the 30-day price volatility, provides insights into potential losses or gains. With a current reading of 0.055, this metric indicates that the price of Ethereum around $2,000 is conducive for investment and suggests a lower risk of significant price drops, particularly if the Seller Exhaustion Constant remains stable
Ethereum Price Predictions 2023-2032
Ethereum Price Forecasts by Cryptopolitan
|Year||Minimum Price||Average Price||Maximum Price|
Ethereum Price Prediction 2023
In our 2023 Ethereum price prediction, we anticipate a minimum trading price of $2,107.57 and an average value of $2,210.78 for the token. With several scheduled ecosystem upgrades, we expect Ethereum to experience a surge in value and reach a maximum price of $2,316.06.
Ethereum Price Prediction 2024
According to our Ethereum price prediction for 2024, we expect a minimum price of $3,101.50 and an average price of $3,212.04. If Ethereum’s growth trajectory persists, we predict its value could reach as high as $3,738.39 at its peak.
Ethereum Price Prediction 2025
For 2025, our Ethereum price prediction expects the minimum price of ETH to be $4,493.41, while the average price is projected to be around $4,621.89. There is potential for significant growth in the value of Ethereum during this period, with ETH price possibly reaching a maximum price of $5,352.41 by the end of the year.
Ethereum Price Prediction 2026
According to our Ethereum price prediction for 2026, we expect the minimum price of the coin to be $6,355.53 and an average Ethereum price of $6,586.62. Additionally, we expect ETH’s price to surge to a maximum level of $7,554.97 by the end of 2026.
Ethereum Price Prediction 2027
Our prediction for Ethereum in 2027 expects a minimum trading value of $9,306.22 and an average price of $9,569.68. Based on this data, the price could reach a maximum of $11,122.99 during the year.
Ethereum Price Prediction 2028
In 2028, our Ethereum forecast anticipates a bullish trend with a floor price of $14,213.29 and an average trading value of $14,596.07. The maximum price for the year is estimated to reach $16,259.86, reflecting a significant increase in the token’s valuation.
Ethereum Price Prediction 2029
For 2029, our Ethereum price prediction suggests a minimum price of $21,038.57. The ETH token is expected to see significant growth, with a maximum potential price value of $24,736.61 and an average projected value of $21,622.42.
Ethereum Price Prediction 2030
According to our prediction for 2030, Ethereum’s value may drop to a low of $30,553.22 by year-end. However, the average trading price is expected to be $31,418.12, and the maximum estimated price could reach as high as $35,817.11.
Ethereum Price Prediction 2031
For the year 2031, our Ethereum price prediction suggests a minimum price of $45,290.02, while the average price is expected to be around $46,546.74. The maximum value for ETH in 2031 is projected to reach $54,050.23.
Ethereum Price Prediction 2032
In 2032, our Ethereum price prediction suggests steady growth for the cryptocurrency. The minimum price is projected to be $63,827.49, and the average trading price is expected to be $65,689.36. Meanwhile, the maximum estimated price for 2032 could be as high as $76,950.22.
Ethereum Price Prediction by Wallet Investor
Wallet Investor predicts that Ethereum is a bad long-term investment. According to them, Ethereum will be worth $1240.480 in one year. In five years, they predict the coin will devalue by 88.6%.
Ethereum Price Prediction by CryptoPredictions
According to CryptoPredictions, Ethereum will have a maximum trading price of $2,341 by the end of 2023. However, the lowest trading price of the coin is expected to be $1,592, while its average trading price is expected to be $1,872 by then.
By 2025, the ETH coin is predicted to have a maximum price of $1,845. The minimum price of the coin is expected to be $1,255; the average price of the coin is expected to be $1,476.
CryptoPredictions also predicts that Ethereum will have a maximum price of $3,048 by 2027. The average trading price of the coin is expected to be $2,439, with a minimum price of $2,073.
Ethereum Price Prediction by Digital Coin Price
Digital Coin Price is bullish on Ethereum. Their forecast predicts the coin will be worth $4,507 maximum by the end of 2023. The average trading price of the coin by then is expected to be $4,387, while its minimum price is expected to be $1,838.
By 2026, ETH is expected to have a maximum price of $9,289, with a minimum price of $7,901. The average trading price of the coin is expected to be $9,108.
Furthermore, Digital Coin Price also predicts that Ethereum will have a maximum price of $15,374, with a minimum price of $13,859 by 2029. The average trading price of the coin by then is expected to be $15,273.
By 2032, Ethereum is expected to have a maximum price of $39,858, according to Digital Coin Price. By then, they predict that the coin will have a minimum price of $38,533, with an average trading price of $39,438.
Ethereum Price Prediction by CoinCodex
CoinCodex predicts that Ethereum is a good long-term investment. They predict the coin will be worth $4,987 in one year.
Based on the historical price movements of Ethereum, the yearly low Ethereum price prediction for 2029 is estimated at $11,493. Meanwhile, the price of Ethereum is predicted to decline and reach $6,610 by 2030.
|Cryptocurency: Ethereum||Ticker Symbol: ETH|
|Price: $2,046||Market cap: $246.17B|
|Circulating Supply: 120,256,040 ETH||Trading Volume: $3,46B|
|All-time high: $4,891.70||All-time low: $0.4209|
Ethereum Price History
Ethereum’s price history suggests that crypto was worth significantly less in 2022 than in late 2021, although nowhere near the lowest price recorded. Much like Bitcoin (BTC), the price of ETH went up in 2021 but for different reasons altogether: Ethereum, for instance, hit the news when a digital art piece was sold as the world’s most expensive NFT for over 38,000 ETH – or 69.3 million U.S. dollars. Unlike Bitcoin – of which the price growth was fueled by the IPO of the U.S.’ biggest crypto trader Coinbase – the rally on Ethereum came from technological developments
More on the Ethereum Network
Burning Ethereum is September’s event and frazzled many nerves who do not understand the burning process. The Ethereum network experienced a significant upgrade on August 5, 2021, which led to massive Ethereum burning.
It is called the London Hard Fork, and the latest upgrade was about five Ethereum Improvement Proposals (EIPs). These include EIP 1559, which aims to boost cryptocurrency mining and increase the speed of Ethereum-based network users.
The Merge refers to the joining of the original execution layer of Ethereum with its new proof-of-stake consensus layer, the Beacon Chain. The Merge eliminated the need for energy-intensive mining and enabled the network to be secured using staked Ethereum. It is an exciting step in realizing the Ethereum vision—more scalability, security, and sustainability.
Initially, the Beacon Chain shipped separately from Mainnet. Ethereum Mainnet – with all its accounts, balances, Smart contracts, and blockchain state – continued to be secured by proof-of-work (POW), even while the Beacon Chain ran in parallel using proof-of-stake (POS). The Merge was when these two protocols finally came together, and POS permanently replaced POW.
Ethereum is a spaceship that launched before it was ready for an interstellar voyage. The community built a new engine and a hardened hull with the Beacon Chain. The upgrade merged the new, more efficient engine into the existing ship.
Merging with Mainnet
On 15 September 2022, the Beacon chain successfully merged with the Ethereum mainnet completing Ethereum’s transition to proof-of-stake consensus, officially putting ETH miners out of work and reducing energy consumption by ~99.95%.
POW secured Ethereum Mainnet from Genesis until The Merge. POW allowed the Ethereum blockchain we’re all used to come into existence in July 2015 with all its familiar features—transactions, smart contracts, accounts, NFTs, ERC protocols, etc.
Throughout Ethereum’s history, developers prepared for an eventual transition away from POW to POS. On 1 December 2020, the Beacon Chain was created as a separate blockchain to Mainnet, running in parallel.
The Beacon Chain was not initially processing Mainnet transactions. It reached a consensus on its state by agreeing on active validators and account balances. After extensive testing with validators, it became time for the Beacon Chain to reach a consensus on real-world data leading to Merge. The Beacon Chain became the consensus engine for all network data, including execution layer transactions and account balances.
Proof-of-stake validators adopted the role of miners and are now responsible for processing the validity of all transactions and proposing blocks.
No transaction history was lost in The Merge. The Merge also included the entire transactional history of Ethereum.
Eth and its ERC derivative users do not need to do anything with your funds or wallet to account for The Merge. ETH is ETH. There is no such thing as “old ETH”/”new ETH” or “ETH1″/”ETH2.0,” and wallets work the same after the upgrade.
The Merge and Sharding
Initially, the plan was to work on sharding before The Merge to address Eth scalability issues. However, with the boom of robust layer 2 scaling solutions, the priority shifted to swapping POW to POS first.
Sharding is the next major upgrade planned on the Ethereum mainnet. Considering the rise and success of layer 2 technologies to scale, sharding plans have shifted to finding the most optimal way to distribute the burden of storing compressed call data to allow exponential growth in network capacity.
Sharding would be impossible without the first transition to POS.
What’s Ethereum Triple Halving?
The miners producing blocks on Ethereum are receiving approximately 14,000 new ETH per day. The chain’s inflation rate is somewhere around 4.5% annually and has no fixed supply, unlike Bitcoin.
The POW chain was shut off forever and replaced with a more efficient POS chain. Instead of miners, validators (stakers) will receive ~1,400 new ETH per day. The chain’s inflation rate was projected to drop to 0.5% annually, just 10% as much as today!
That’s cool, what about gas fees? Two things.
One is an upgrade from last August, EIP1559. All base fees are burned. Since then about 3% of the annual supply of ETH has been burned. With EIP1559 and the POS merge the total issuance will be around -2.5% per year. Ethereum will become deflationary.
And two… Contrary to popular belief POS will not reduce gas fees. It’s only meant to reduce the amount of new ETH being created. Gas fees will likely rise to uncomfortable levels and maintain until sharding potentially ~6 years out.
Welcome to Rollup-Centric Ethereum
Rollups reduce gas fees by 100-1000x essentially by rolling 100-1000 transactions into one single transaction. Some with the ability to use a mix of on and off-chain data computation.
The more congested the network is, the cheaper it becomes since there are more people to split the one gas fee with, opposite of what we have today.
But the greater concern is whether the current Ethereum Price Prediction algorithms will hold with the new structure. How will the projected Merge affect $ETH prices? Some of the ETH/USD price surges have been attributed to the general market trend reversal spurred by the slowing pace of inflation, but a great deal of outperformance is related to the Merge.
Ethereum Virtual Machine
The EIP 1559 upgrade considered the criticism faced by Ethereum for the rising transaction costs and network congestion by introducing the latest Ethereum burning method that simplified the process. Since the EIP 1559 upgrade, more than 300,000 Ethereum coins worth over $1 billion have been burned or taken out of circulation.
While speculators forecast that Bitcoin will be a store of value, supply and demand indicators reveal that Ethereum will likely morph into a world computer with the help of the Ethereum Virtual Machine.
Ethereum price predictions are essential for every investor looking to try his luck in the crypto industry. After the recent introduction of the network upgrade, Ethereum experienced a resurgence in demand and price action due to its value which could be expanded with NFT and DeFi spaces alongside its status as the ‘first-mover’ in the world of blockchain.
The most recent news item around Ethereum and EIP 1559 is a research paper published by students at Peking University, which Ethereum founder Vitalik Buterin applauded.
Also, it was revealed recently that the after-effects of the London upgrade have already kicked in as the network 36 percent of newly issued Ethereum in just about two days.
Liquidity Depth of Ethereum
The liquidity depth of Ethereum and what developers have in mind to resolve scalability make Ethereum a topic of discussion across social media platforms.
There are Ethereum speculators angling to clip volatility and profit, but there are actual Ethereum holders and believers amid them.
Following the “DeFi Summer 2020″, it became painfully obvious that Ethereum could not scale, making it expedient to migrate from PoW to PoS consensus mechanism. Instead of miners, PoS relies on ETH stakers to validate transactions. That’s cleaner, faster, more scalable, and cheaper.
ETH’s Fundamental Analysis
Decentralized Applications (DApps) and Smart Contracts may be built on Ethereum’s open-ended, blockchain-based, public software platform. The usage of smart contracts eliminates the need for a third-party middleman. In a nutshell, smart contracts have well-specified terms and procedures in place to enforce them.
In contrast to conventional contracts, smart contracts are written in code that a computer can execute, eliminating the possibility of ambiguity. The smart contract code is performed on the Ethereum network, a single decentralized computer. As a result, all participating computers will agree on the outcomes of all smart contracts on the Ethereum network.
It is common for traditional software to depend on a central authority for data storage and processing. This necessitates faith in centralized power. Using smart contracts on the Ethereum network, decentralized applications (DApps) may be created. Data may be stored in smart contracts. The Ethereum network ensures that the smart contract code carries out all data activities. In other words, the data is safe and secure without the need for a single trusted source of information.
Developers require Ethereum to build and execute apps on the Ethereum network. Payments for transaction fees and computational services may be made using Ethereum, a cryptocurrency.
Users may transmit Ethereum to other users using smart contracts, and developers can design arrangements that receive, keep, and transfer Ethereum. The Ethereum network uses mining to create Ethereum by validating transactional data. “Miners” are the people who do this validation.
Ethereum is given to miners that successfully validate a series of transactions. Miners adhere to a set of cryptographic principles that ensure the whole network’s stability, security, and safety. A digital public ledger known as blockchain records and verifies Ethereum transactions.
How do you get Ethereum?
Ethereum may be obtained in a variety of methods:
- ETH may be acquired on an exchange by using fiat cash.
- Exchanges that provide a BTC-ETH pair may trade ETH for Bitcoin.
- In certain cases, you may get it as a gift from someone else.
- There are two ways to get it: As a miner, either by joining a mining pool or acquiring a cloud mining contract
Ethereum Network History (2015-2022)
2014 – 2016
By August 2014, Ethereum had raised $18.4 million via an initial coin offering. They completed their test net, Olympic, in May 2015 and went live two months later in July 2015 with Frontier. But the first actual “stable” Ethereum was Homestead which was activated roughly a year later, in March 2016.
Because of developers’ forecasts and a prediction of a future shaped by the pure utility, a noteworthy development in Ethereum’s history is the DAO hack of June 2016. 15% of the network’s flexible total supply was siphoned on that day because of an Ethereum vulnerability exploit. This theft depressed ETH’s price but soon after, the price recovered, performing spectacularly over the years.
Because of a difference in ideology-and whether the best course of action was to recover stolen coins through a change in consensus, or hard fork, formed Ethereum Classic.
2017 – 2019
Code-improvement-wise, there has been a significant milestone. The first was Homestead, but it wasn’t until 2017 that Byzantium was activated.
Later Constantinople and Saint Petersburg saw the hardening of Ethereum miner rewards, the introduction of code that reduces the cost of smart contracting, and other features.
At the same time, the Ethereum network transits to Ethereum 2.0, whose game end, Serenity, could cement Ethereum as a leader in smart contracting and dApp deployment.
Most of these features were implemented a year later, in 2018, with blockchain technology.
Underpinning Ethereum is a decentralized open-source node system built or derived on some bits of Bitcoin’s source code.
The critical distinction is introducing a Turing complete virtual machine and smart contracts that enable code execution once certain on-chain conditions are met between the two transacting parties.
Because of smart contracts, the development world hasn’t been the same. An Ethereum smart contract is nothing more than a piece of self-executing code that, once executed, is irreversible, open, and immutable.
Like Bitcoin, Ethereum runs on its blockchain and has its native currency, Ethereum (ETH), and Solidity’s programming language. While Ethereum tokens comply with different standards, ERC-20, ERC-1155, or ERC-721-Non-Fungible Tokens (NFT), all fees are paid in Ethereum (ETH).
2019 – 2021
Ethereum ushered in new financing models in initial coin offerings, ICOs, immutable dApps, and most recently, decentralized finance (DeFi).
DeFi democratizes finance, is open, and owners of Ethereum can borrow in exchange for a stable coin or earn interest when they lend out their stash.
Even though Ethereum is a success and Ether-a digital currency valuable, it faces a scalability challenge because of too much use. The Proof-of-Work (POW) consensus model, Vitalik Buterin claims, is energy-intensive.
Combined with other factors, it could be hard to make Ethereum forecasts. There are several Ethereum proposals forwarded to resolve this.
EIP-1559 London hard fork has been deployed on the testnet, and now, there is a release of Ethereum 2.0, which will change the network forever.
The consensus is that the Ethereum network will shift from a Proof-of-Work to a Proof-of-Stake consensus model, which supporters say is energy-efficient secure.
In 2021-2023, Ethereum witnessed notable developments, primarily the transition to Ethereum 2.0, involving significant shifts like the move from proof-of-work to proof-of-stake (PoS), drastically reducing energy usage and enhancing transaction throughput.
This transition, known as “The Merge,” was a critical milestone in Ethereum’s roadmap, targeting greater scalability, security, and sustainability. Ethereum also saw growth in decentralized finance (DeFi) and non-fungible tokens (NFTs), with continuous improvements in smart contract functionalities and Layer 2 scaling solutions like Optimism and Arbitrum. These advancements reinforced Ethereum’s ecosystem, improving efficiency and user experience.
Additional revenue streams from staking
One Ethereum reached its maximum price in April-May; everything changed. It became the center of attraction for many DeFi projects, but the exorbitant transaction fee.
People had to pay an average price of $120 for completing their transactions, while Ethereum’s projected growth was estimated to blow off the charts. The rates got so high that projects started switching over to the TRON chain.
But after the London hard fork was implemented successfully on the Ropsten testnet. The EIP-1559 was a much-awaited improvement in the network. The advancement towards ETH 2.0 caused higher fees in April-May but went down as the traffic from TRON shifted back to Ethereum.
Experts have thoroughly examined Ethereum’s performance since its inception. Based on its solid fundamentals and potential, we also believe that Ethereum will remain relevant. The constant upgrades and growth of Ethereum suggest that 2023 and beyond will be promising for this technology. As more people gain confidence in blockchain solutions, Ethereum is poised to soar to new heights. Investors who hold onto ETH for the long term will likely see positive returns.
Will the Ethereum price go up?
Bitcoin and altcoins are positively correlated. If the BTC price edge is higher, the price of Ethereum will likely soar as it is the second most valuable coin in market capitalization. This possibility increases the odds of ETH's upsides over downsides. Another thing, DeFi is roughly three years old, but most are based in Ethereum. ETH is collateral. The more DeFi is used as an alternative channel for financing, the more the demand for ETH will rise. This effect is a net positive trading volume for institutional investors in the immediate term and a boost now that the total locked maximum price of ETH denominated in USD is rising after dropping from over $1.5 billion per statistics from DeFi Pulse
Is Ethereum better than Bitcoin?
Ethereum is a solid platform, and ETH is a good investment, and there are many reasons for this. The project's foundation shapes Ethereum Forecast 2025, and ETH is worth holding in any portfolio. The return on Investment (ROI) of Ethereum (ETH) is the first indicator. Even after 95 percent of the price falls, early investors are deep in the money. They are based on current fundamentals, making price predictions for digital coins by considering online.
What is an ERC20 token?
The critical distinction between ERC20 tokens and other cryptocurrencies is that ERC20 tokens are produced and hosted on the Ethereum blockchain. At the same time, bitcoin and bitcoin cash are the native currencies of their blockchains. An Ethereum address is used to hold ERC20 tokens, and gas is used to pay transaction fees.
What is gas?
On the Ethereum network, the smallest labor unit is called a gas unit. A specific quantity of gas is needed to validate and confirm each transaction on the Ethereum blockchain. For a transaction to be included in a block, miners must make a certain amount of effort
How can I back up my ETHER account?
Your backup phrase for your wallet should be written down and kept. Your 12-word mnemonic phrase contains your ether private key and cash. The Security section of your wallet is the best place to start if you haven't already. Thanks to your backup phrase, you can always access your money if anything goes wrong. You may follow this instruction as you work your way through the steps.
Disclaimer. The information provided is not trading advice. Cryptopolitan.com holds no liability for any investments made based on the information provided on this page. We strongly recommend independent research and/or consultation with a qualified professional before making any investment decision.