IPFS vs Swarm vs BigchainDB: Which Technology is Best for Developing dApps?

Decentralized applications (dApps) are digital applications or programs that exist and run on a decentralized peer-to-peer network instead of a single centralized server. DApps have emerged with the popularity of blockchain networks like Ethereum, which allow developers to build applications that leverage the benefits of decentralization such as increased transparency, fault tolerance, and security. 

To build a dApp, developers need to choose and leverage technologies that align with the decentralized ethos. The data storage and distribution layer of a dApp needs to be decentralized for true decentralization. This is where choice solutions like IPFS vs Swarm vs BigchainDB come in.

Explanation of IPFS, Swarm, and BigchainDB

IPFS (InterPlanetary File System): A peer-to-peer protocol that allows decentralized storage and sharing of files on a distributed network. IPFS uses content-addressing and a BitTorrent-like network to distribute and version files.

Swarm: A distributed storage platform and content distribution service built for the Ethereum web3 stack. It offers decentralized and redundant storage of Ethereum data.

BigchainDB: A blockchain database that combines decentralized control with low latency querying and indexing of structured data. It allows deveBlopers to build performant dApps and does not require running consensus nodes.

Importance of choosing the right technology for dApp development

Choosing the right decentralized data storage technology is crucial for building fully decentralized dApps. The technology needs to align with the app’s requirements around factors like scalability, querying capabilities, file storage support, integration with other parts of the technology stack, performance, costs, and network effects. An optimal technology choice allows developers to leverage the full benefits of decentralization.


IPFS (InterPlanetary File System) is a protocol and peer-to-peer network for storing and sharing data in a distributed file system. On IPFS, files are addressed by the hash of their content, not by location. IPFS allows creating completely decentralized and distributed applications.

The IPFS protocol allows nodes in a network to store, request, and transmit verifiable data with each other. Data on IPFS is distributed across nodes, with built-in data replication and versioning. IPFS uses a BitTorrent-like method to distribute files rapidly on a global scale.

Features and advantages of IPFS for dApp development

Bandwidth Cost Reduction: IPFS enables significant cost reduction in bandwidth expenses, surpassing 60% savings, achieved by retrieving pieces of files simultaneously from multiple computer nodes.

Decentralization: In contrast to centralized systems, IPFS operates on a decentralized model, ensuring files can be downloaded from numerous locations within a distributed environment. This decentralized approach enhances the reliability of the Internet experience, as it is not dependent on a single organization.

Preservability: IPFS ensures the longevity of uploaded files through data mirroring, guaranteeing that the names of files remain recorded indefinitely. Additionally, version control is facilitated by Git, a distributed version control system, allowing efficient management of file revisions.

Limitations and challenges of IPFS for dApp development

Performance and scalability: As a distributed protocol, IPFS can face challenges with latency and congestion as network scales. Bottlenecks can occur on popular files.

Storage costs: IPFS has no incentives for file storage. Nodes must pay the cost of storage, limiting scalability. A solution is Filecoin which adds incentives on top of IPFS.

Network reliance: Performance depends on the number of nodes. Applications must account for nodes joining or leaving the network.


Swarm is distributed storage infrastructure for the Ethereum Web3 tech stack. It offers decentralized and redundant storage of Ethereum’s public state, blockchain data, and DApp code. Swarm is intended to complement services like IPFS by offering incentivized, encrypted, and networked storage and distribution of DApp data.

Swarm uses Ethereum for peer coordination and enables monetization via payment channels into smart contracts. Nodes get incentives in the form of SWAP tokens to offer storage capacity, bandwidth and availability guarantees.

Features and advantages of Swarm for dApp development

Distributed storage: Swarm provides a decentralized storage and content delivery infrastructure for dApps. It allows files to be broken down into smaller chunks, which are then distributed and replicated across the network of Swarm nodes. This distributed storage ensures redundancy, availability, and fault tolerance, making it suitable for hosting and delivering content for dApps.

  • Incentives and rewards for participants: Swarm introduces a native incentivization mechanism to encourage participation and resource sharing. Nodes that contribute storage capacity and bandwidth to the network can receive rewards or payments for their services. These rewards are typically facilitated through integration with Ethereum, where payments are made into smart contracts, enabling a system of incentivized content hosting.
  • Seamless integration with Ethereum: Swarm is designed for tight integration with the Ethereum ecosystem. It supports interoperability with Ethereum-based tools and frameworks such as Truffle, Web3.js, and Solidity smart contracts. This integration allows developers to leverage existing Ethereum infrastructure, developer communities, and tooling for building and deploying dApps that utilize Swarm for decentralized storage.
  • Privacy and security: Swarm incorporates privacy and security features to protect data and user privacy. It utilizes encryption and authentication mechanisms to ensure data integrity and confidentiality. Swarm also offers access control mechanisms to regulate content access based on permissions and ownership.
  • Content availability and censorship resistance: Swarm’s decentralized nature makes it resistant to censorship and single points of failure. Content hosted on Swarm remains available as long as there are participating nodes in the network. This attribute is especially important for dApps that prioritize content availability and resistance against censorship or data loss.
  • Chunk-level data distribution and retrieval: Swarm breaks down files into smaller chunks and uses distributed hash tables (DHTs) to efficiently distribute and retrieve content across the network. This approach enables parallelized and optimized data retrieval, ensuring faster and more efficient content delivery to end-users.
  • Mutable resources: Swarm supports mutable resources, allowing for updates to existing content. This feature is essential for dApps that require dynamic data updates or user-generated content. Mutable resources enable efficient updates and changes to content without requiring the entire file to be re-uploaded or redistributed.
  • Interoperability with existing web technologies: Swarm aims to be compatible with existing web technologies and standards, allowing for easy integration and adoption by web developers. It provides support for HTTP(S) protocols, making it accessible and familiar for web developers transitioning to decentralized web development.

These features and advantages make Swarm a suitable choice for dApp developers looking for a decentralized storage and content distribution solution that integrates well with the Ethereum ecosystem, provides incentives for participants, and ensures privacy, availability, and security for their applications.

Limitations and challenges of Swarm for dApp development

Network congestion: Swarm’s peer-to-peer file transfer can get congested and saturated as usage increases, affecting DApp performance.

Security considerations: Encrypted content delivery may have issues with censorship resistance. Centralized gateways may limit decentralization.


BigchainDB is a blockchain database that allows developers to deploy decentralized applications with high transaction throughput, low latency, powerful querying capabilities, and in-built asset support. It combines decentralized control, immutability and creation & movement of digital assets with performant querying of structured data.

BigchainDB uses Tendermint consensus for node voting and validation. The underlying database scales transaction throughput by using managed BigchainDB clusters instead of every node being a blockchain consensus node.  

Features and advantages of BigchainDB for dApp development

While BigchainDB offers certain advantages for dApp development, it does not have native support for asset management or tokens. BigchainDB primarily focuses on providing scalable and decentralized database capabilities. Here are the corrected features and advantages of BigchainDB for dApp development:

Scalability and high transaction throughput: BigchainDB is designed to handle high transaction volumes, offering scalability that can accommodate applications with demanding workloads. It achieves this by utilizing a distributed database model and parallel processing, allowing for a high number of writes and queries per second.

Data querying and searching capabilities: BigchainDB provides rich querying capabilities, allowing developers to perform complex searches and analytics on structured data stored within the database. This enables efficient retrieval and analysis of data, making it suitable for applications that require advanced data querying.

Immutability and data integrity: BigchainDB utilizes blockchain principles to ensure data immutability and integrity. Once data is written to the BigchainDB database, it becomes tamper-proof and cannot be modified. This feature is crucial for applications that require a verifiable and auditable record of data transactions.

Permissioning and access control: BigchainDB offers flexible permissioning and access control mechanisms, allowing developers to define roles and permissions for different entities accessing the database. This ensures data privacy and security by controlling who can read, write, or query the stored data.

Integration with existing databases: BigchainDB can act as a layer on top of traditional databases, providing a bridge between decentralized and centralized data storage systems. This enables developers to leverage the benefits of blockchain technology while still utilizing their existing data infrastructure.

Consensus and transactional support: BigchainDB utilizes a federated consensus model, where a predefined set of nodes collectively validate transactions. This approach allows for fast transaction confirmation and consensus, ensuring data integrity and consistency within the network.

Ecosystem and community support: BigchainDB benefits from an active developer community and has a growing ecosystem of tools and libraries. This provides support, resources, and collaboration opportunities for developers working on BigchainDB-based dApps.

It’s important to note that while BigchainDB offers these features and advantages, it may not be suitable for all types of dApps. Consider your specific requirements and evaluate whether BigchainDB aligns with your needs in terms of scalability, data querying, immutability, and integration capabilities.

Limitations and challenges of BigchainDB for dApp development

Centralization concerns: Some centralization exists currently around BigchainDB cluster hosting providers like AWS.

Dependency on a consensus algorithm: Performance and decentralization depends on the robustness of the Tendermint consensus used.

Cost considerations: Querying and storage costs may be higher compared to decentralized file storage in IPFS and Swarm.

Comparison and Evaluation

Performance and scalability

IPFS vs Swarm: IPFS can suffer performance issues at scale. Swarm is built for performance but lacks maturity.

IPFS vs BigchainDB: IPFS may be more limited by network effects for content distribution. BigchainDB offers high scalability.

Swarm vs BigchainDB: Swarm’s P2P network also gets congested. BigchainDB is best for optimized transactions and scalability.

Data integrity and versioning

IPFS vs Swarm: Both offer tamper-proof data with history versioning due to content-addressing and hashes.

IPFS vs BigchainDB: BigchainDB does not offer native versioning of stored data like IPFS does.

Swarm vs BigchainDB: Swarm and IPFS both better suited for versioning files than BigchainDB.

Storage costs and efficiency

IPFS vs Swarm: Swarm offers incentives for offering storage and bandwidth to lower costs.

IPFS vs BigchainDB: IPFS depends on nodes contributing storage and bandwidth voluntarily. BigchainDB has managed storage.

Swarm vs BigchainDB: Swarm storage costs may be lower than managed BigchainDB clusters.

Integration with dApp ecosystem

IPFS vs Swarm: IPFS has better support and integrations with blockchain tools like Truffle. Swarm meant for Ethereum.

IPFS vs BigchainDB: IPFS integrates well with blockchain data storage needs. BigchainDB is better for complex queries.

Swarm vs BigchainDB: Swarm integrates seamlessly with Ethereum-based dApps. BigchainDB offers general data storage.


IPFS, Swarm, and BigchainDB are all decentralized technologies that can be utilized for developing decentralized applications (dApps). Each of these technologies has its own strengths and limitations, and the choice of which one is better for developing dApps depends on the specific requirements and use case of the application. It’s important to evaluate factors such as scalability, performance, data persistence, privacy, and consensus mechanisms when making a decision.


What is the main difference between IPFS, Swarm, and BigchainDB?

IPFS is a distributed file system for storing and sharing files, while Swarm is a decentralized storage and content distribution platform. BigchainDB, on the other hand, is a decentralized database that focuses on storing and managing structured data with built-in blockchain features.

Which technology is more suitable for large-scale data storage?

When it comes to large-scale data storage, Swarm and IPFS are better suited as they provide distributed storage mechanisms. IPFS is more commonly used for file storage, while Swarm is specifically designed for decentralized content storage and distribution.

Which technology offers better performance and scalability?

Both IPFS and Swarm offer similar performance and scalability characteristics as they utilize peer-to-peer networks. However, Swarm is specifically optimized for decentralized content delivery, which may provide better performance in scenarios where content retrieval speed is crucial.

Which technology provides better support for data privacy and security?

IPFS and Swarm do not inherently provide privacy features, although encryption can be applied to files stored in these systems. BigchainDB, on the other hand, supports transparent and private data storage through its permissioning and encryption mechanisms.

Which technology offers better consensus mechanisms for dApps?

IPFS and Swarm are content-addressable networks and do not have built-in consensus mechanisms. BigchainDB, on the other hand, employs a blockchain-based consensus mechanism that allows for decentralized decision-making and data immutability.

Disclaimer. The information provided is not trading advice. Cryptopolitan.com holds no liability for any investments made based on the information provided on this page. We strongly recommend independent research and/or consultation with a qualified professional before making any investment decisions.

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Damilola Lawrence

Damilola is a crypto enthusiast, content writer, and journalist. When he is not writing, he spends most of his time reading and keeping tabs on exciting projects in the blockchain space. He also studies the ramifications of Web3 and blockchain development to have a stake in the future economy.

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