Espresso: Improving Layer-2 Interoperability with Shared Sequencing


  • Espresso, led by Justin Drake and Brendan Farmer, introduces a marketplace for shared sequencing to enhance interoperability and scalability across Ethereum’s Layer-2 solutions, aiming to unify rollups and validiums for a seamless user and developer experience.
  • By leveraging shared sequencing and the innovative Hotshot finality gadget within its marketplace, Espresso aims to reduce fragmentation and improve transaction efficiency across the Ethereum ecosystem, marking a significant step towards a more interconnected and unified Layer-2 landscape.


In the rapidly evolving landscape of Ethereum‘s Layer-2 solutions, a groundbreaking initiative named Espresso is set to redefine the boundaries of interoperability and scalability. Spearheaded by visionaries Justin Drake and Brendan Farmer, Espresso introduces an innovative marketplace for shared sequencing, aiming to bridge the fragmented ecosystem of Layer-2 solutions, from rollups to validiums. The ambitious project seeks to unify the Ethereum Layer-2 chains, offering a seamless experience for users and developers alike.

The genesis of Espresso: A unified vision for Ethereum Layer-2

The inception of Espresso is rooted in a simple yet profound mission: to restore unity within the Ethereum Layer-2 ecosystem. Over recent years, the advent of rollups and validiums has significantly enhanced the scalability and diversity of execution environments within Ethereum. However, the expansion has come at the cost of increased fragmentation, with applications across different rollups lacking shared liquidity and interoperability that are inherent to the Ethereum Layer-1 (L1) platform. Espresso aims to recapture the essence of Ethereum’s value proposition, which lies in its unified and trust-minimized infrastructure, distinguishing it from the centralized paradigms of Web2.

Espresso’s approach to achieving unity is through the creation of a marketplace for shared sequencing. The marketplace enables Layer-2 chains to sell blockspace to shared proposers, including the proposer for the Ethereum mainnet EVM itself. By facilitating transactions across multiple chains, these shared proposers can create surplus value, effectively satisfying user intents in a more efficient and unified manner. The innovation promises to make transactions across Ethereum’s ecosystem—whether paying, trading NFTs, providing DeFi liquidity, or swapping assets—more secure, convenient, and cost-effective.

Shared sequencing: The path to interoperability

At the heart of Espresso’s solution is the concept of shared sequencing. Traditionally, rollups process transactions independently through isolated sequencers, posting these transactions asynchronously to the Ethereum L1. The method, while effective in maintaining the sovereignty and performance of individual rollups, complicates interoperability between different Layer-2 solutions. Shared sequencing emerges as a transformative approach, allowing users to experience the benefits of a singular Ethereum chain while preserving the distinct advantages of each rollup, such as sovereignty, low costs, and low latency.

Shared sequencing operates by updating rollups in discrete blocks of transactions, similar to the Ethereum L1. A group of rollups shares a sequencer for a specific time slot, during which a shared proposer proposes the next blocks for all these rollups simultaneously. The arrangement enables the proposer to execute transactions across multiple rollups in an atomic manner, effectively satisfying arbitrary user intents. Users can either place their trust in the proposer to fulfill their transactional needs or obtain an economically bonded preconfirmation as a form of insurance.

Espresso’s marketplace: A new era of decentralized sequencing

Espresso’s marketplace for shared sequencing represents a paradigm shift in how transactions are processed across Ethereum’s Layer-2 ecosystem. By transitioning from centralized sequencers to a decentralized marketplace, Espresso enables a more dynamic and competitive environment for proposer assignment and finality confirmation. The marketplace not only facilitates the sale of blockspace to the highest bidders but also introduces a decentralized, economically secured finality gadget known as Hotshot. Hotshot offers rollups the ability to share a finality gadget for faster confirmations than what the Ethereum L1 can provide, operated through a Byzantine Fault Tolerant (BFT) protocol.

The introduction of Hotshot and the marketplace for shared sequencing heralds a new era of low-cost, efficient bridging between rollups. By ensuring that transactions are finalized using Hotshot, the risk for liquidity providers in bridging transactions is significantly reduced. It innovation not only enhances the security and efficiency of cross-rollup transactions but also paves the way for a more interconnected and unified Ethereum ecosystem.


Espresso stands at the forefront of a transformative movement towards a more unified, scalable, and interoperable Ethereum ecosystem. By addressing the challenges of fragmentation and limited interoperability among Layer-2 solutions, Espresso’s shared sequencing marketplace and Hotshot finality gadget offer a compelling vision for the future of Ethereum’s infrastructure. As the project progresses, the Ethereum community eagerly anticipates the realization of the vision, promising a seamless and integrated experience for users and developers across the Ethereum Layer-2 landscape. With the support and collaboration of thought leaders like Justin Drake and Brendan Farmer, Espresso is poised to redefine the boundaries of what is possible within Ethereum’s ever-evolving ecosystem.

Disclaimer. The information provided is not trading advice. Cryptopolitan.com holds no liability for any investments made based on the information provided on this page. We strongly recommend independent research and/or consultation with a qualified professional before making any investment decisions.

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Haseeb Shaheen

As a Web Researcher and Internet Marketer, Haseeb Shaheen delivers relevant valuable content for audiences. He focuses on financial and crypto market analysis, as well as technology-related areas that help people change their lives.

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