30 Questions and Answers about ZkSync, Layer-2 Solution for Ethereum

EG 710 30 Questions and Answers about ZkSync


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Layer-2 solutions such as ZkSync are emerging as critical components for scalability and efficiency. Built on the principles of zero-knowledge proofs, ZkSync aims to improve transaction speed and decrease costs without sacrificing the security of the Ethereum mainnet. 

This Cryptopolitan guide gives you in-depth information about ZkSync, addressing a range of questions about its capabilities, features, challenges, and potential use cases.

What is ZkSync?

ZkSync is a Layer-2 scaling solution designed for Ethereum, the world’s second-largest blockchain platform by market capitalization. It is designed to bring a Visa-scale level of throughput to Ethereum while preserving the strong security properties of Layer-1. ZkSync utilizes zkRollups technology, a zero-knowledge proof methodology that allows for increased data privacy and transaction scalability.

How does ZkSync operate as a Layer-2 solution for Ethereum?

As a Layer-2 solution, ZkSync processes transactions off the main Ethereum chain, hence, significantly improving transaction speed and reducing costs. It bundles multiple operations into a single proof, which is then posted to the Ethereum mainnet. This method greatly enhances Ethereum’s transaction capacity without overloading the network.

What technology underpins ZkSync?

ZkSync is built on a technology known as zkRollup. ZkRollup is a Layer-2 scaling solution that uses zero-knowledge proofs to validate all transactions off-chain, while storing only the minimal data on-chain. It’s a way to perform many computations off-chain while ensuring the security of the main Ethereum network.

How does ZkSync enhance transaction speed on the Ethereum network?

ZkSync enhances transaction speed by processing transactions off-chain. Instead of each transaction needing to be processed by every node on the Ethereum network, ZkSync aggregates multiple transactions into a single proof that is posted on-chain. This means transactions can be confirmed much faster.

Can ZkSync address Ethereum’s high gas fees issue?

Yes, ZkSync can address Ethereum’s high gas fees. By moving transactions off-chain, ZkSync drastically reduces the amount of computational work that needs to be done on the Ethereum mainnet, leading to lower gas fees. Transactions are processed in batches, meaning users only have to pay a fraction compared to executing transactions directly on Ethereum.

What is the role of zkRollups in ZkSync’s operation?

ZkRollups play a vital role in ZkSync’s operation. They allow for the aggregation of multiple transactions into a single proof that can be verified on-chain. ZkRollups maintain the security of the Layer-1 blockchain while increasing transaction throughput. All the transaction data is available on-chain but the computation and storage are performed off-chain, providing a balance of efficiency and security.

How does ZkSync contribute to the scalability of Ethereum?

ZkSync significantly enhances Ethereum’s scalability. It achieves this by taking most of the computational and storage load off of Ethereum’s Layer-1, processing transactions off-chain, and then posting a single proof to the Ethereum network. This allows more transactions to be processed per second, thereby contributing to the scalability of Ethereum.

Can ZkSync support smart contracts?

Matter Labs, the team behind ZkSync, announced plans for ZkSync 2.0, which is expected to support EVM-compatible smart contracts. This feature would allow developers to write and deploy smart contracts just as they would on Ethereum’s mainnet, but with the scalability benefits of ZkSync.

What are the potential use cases for ZkSync?

ZkSync can be used for a variety of applications that require high transaction throughput and lower fees. These can include decentralized exchanges, gaming platforms, and other decentralized applications (dApps) that need to manage a high volume of transactions. It’s also useful for microtransaction scenarios, such as pay-per-use services, where the high fees on the Ethereum mainnet would otherwise make such transactions prohibitively expensive.

How is security maintained in ZkSync?

Security in ZkSync is maintained through the use of zero-knowledge proofs and the inherent security of the Ethereum mainnet. With zkRollups, all the data necessary to prove the validity of each transaction is stored on-chain, while the computation is performed off-chain. This ensures that even if the Layer-2 system were to fail, users could still recover their assets directly from the data stored on the Ethereum blockchain.

Is ZkSync interoperable with other blockchains?

While ZkSync is specifically designed as a Layer-2 solution for Ethereum, the principles behind its design could potentially be applied to other blockchains that support smart contracts and have similar architecture to Ethereum. However, each implementation would require careful consideration of the unique characteristics and security models of the underlying blockchain.

What makes ZkSync unique compared to other Layer-2 solutions?

ZkSync stands out due to its implementation of zkRollups, providing a unique balance between security, scalability, and decentralization. It provides high throughput without sacrificing the strong security of Ethereum’s Layer-1. Another distinctive feature is its anticipated support for EVM-compatible smart contracts, enabling existing Ethereum developers to deploy their applications on ZkSync with minimal changes.

What role does zero-knowledge proof technology play in ZkSync?

Zero-knowledge proof technology plays a fundamental role in ZkSync. It’s the mechanism that allows ZkSync to validate transactions off-chain, reducing the computational load on the Ethereum network. In ZkSync, this principle is used to prove the validity of transactions without having to process each transaction on the Ethereum mainnet.

How does ZkSync handle consensus and validation of transactions?

In ZkSync, transactions are initially processed off-chain by validators who maintain the state of the ZkSync network. These validators batch multiple operations together into a single zkRollup proof, which is then posted to the Ethereum mainnet. The Ethereum network then validates this proof, reaching consensus on the updated state of the ZkSync network. This process ensures both efficiency and security for the ZkSync Layer-2 system.

What are the limitations or challenges of using ZkSync?

One potential limitation of ZkSync, and Layer-2 solutions in general, is the additional complexity they introduce. Users and developers must understand how to interact with a Layer-2 system on top of the underlying Layer-1 blockchain. Another challenge lies in achieving widespread adoption: for Layer-2 solutions to be effective, they must be widely used, which requires integration with wallets, exchanges, and other parts of the blockchain ecosystem. Also, while Layer-2 solutions can drastically improve scalability, they still rely on the underlying Layer-1 for security and finality.

Is ZkSync suitable for enterprise applications?

ZkSync, with its enhanced scalability and lower transaction fees, can certainly be suitable for enterprise applications. For businesses requiring a high volume of transactions, particularly those that are considering the use of Ethereum for its robust smart contract capabilities, ZkSync could provide the scalability solution needed to make such applications practical. However, each enterprise has unique needs and should consider the implications of Layer-2 solutions carefully.

How can ZkSync enhance privacy and confidentiality in blockchain transactions?

ZkSync uses zero-knowledge proofs, a cryptographic technology that can provide enhanced privacy. The technology allows validators to verify transactions without needing to know the content of the transactions themselves. However, it’s important to note that like Ethereum, ZkSync is not designed to be a privacy-centric blockchain where transaction details are hidden. The details of transactions are transparent, but the technology provides certain privacy-enhancing characteristics.

What are the costs associated with using ZkSync?

By processing transactions off-chain, ZkSync can greatly reduce the transaction fees of the Ethereum network. Instead of paying gas fees for every single transaction, users in ZkSync pay fees only when they deposit into or withdraw from the Layer-2 environment. Within ZkSync, transaction fees are paid in the token being transacted, which can provide a more predictable and user-friendly experience.

How does ZkSync handle token transfers and asset management?

ZkSync can handle token transfers and asset management much like Ethereum, but more efficiently. Any ERC-20 or ERC-721 token can be sent on ZkSync just like on the Ethereum mainnet, but with higher speed and lower costs. This makes it a compelling solution for applications involving frequent token transfers or complex asset management, like decentralized exchanges or gaming platforms.

How does ZkSync address the issue of transaction finality?

ZkSync relies on the security and finality of the underlying Ethereum Layer-1. Once a zkRollup proof is posted and accepted on Ethereum, the transactions included in that proof are considered finalized. By tying the finality of transactions to Ethereum, ZkSync leverages the robust security and decentralized nature of the Ethereum network.

What are the potential risks associated with ZkSync?

As with any Layer-2 solution, there are potential risks associated with ZkSync. One risk involves user error: if users are not familiar with the workings of Layer-2, they could make mistakes when interacting with it. Also, there could be smart contract bugs or vulnerabilities in the Layer-2 solution itself, though such risks are mitigated through rigorous auditing and formal verification. Finally, there’s always the risk of insufficient adoption, which could limit the utility of ZkSync.

How does ZkSync impact decentralization in Ethereum’s network?

ZkSync is designed to preserve the decentralization of the Ethereum network. By offloading computational work from Ethereum, ZkSync can help ensure that running an Ethereum node remains feasible for as many participants as possible, thereby supporting the decentralization of the network. Meanwhile, ZkSync’s reliance on Ethereum for security and finality means that it does not introduce additional points of centralization.

How is ZkSync different from other zkRollup solutions?

ZkSync sets itself apart from other zkRollup solutions through a focus on user and developer experience, including planned support for EVM-compatible smart contracts. ZkSync also emphasizes security, using a process of rigorous testing, formal verification, and third-party audits to minimize the risk of smart contract bugs or other vulnerabilities. Furthermore, the team behind ZkSync has a strong commitment to open-source development and community engagement, which helps foster a healthy ecosystem around the project.

Are there any regulatory considerations specific to ZkSync implementations?

Regulatory considerations for ZkSync implementations will largely be similar to those for other blockchain and Layer-2 technologies. These could include considerations around the transmission of digital assets, privacy regulations, and potential securities law implications for certain types of transactions. As with any blockchain technology, it’s important to consider the regulatory landscape of the specific jurisdictions in which the technology will be used.

Can ZkSync achieve the same level of security as Ethereum’s Layer-1?

ZkSync is designed to inherit the security of Ethereum’s Layer-1. By leveraging zkRollup technology, it ensures that all transaction data is stored on-chain, even though computation and storage are performed off-chain. This means that even in the event of a failure of the Layer-2 system, users would still be able to recover their assets based on the data stored on the Ethereum mainnet.

How does ZkSync impact user experience in blockchain applications?

ZkSync can significantly improve the user experience in blockchain applications by providing faster transaction confirmation times and lower fees. It also enables users to pay transaction fees in the token they are transferring, instead of having to hold and pay fees in ETH. Furthermore, with its planned support for EVM-compatible smart contracts, ZkSync will allow developers to create more complex applications, further enhancing the potential user experience.

What are the future developments and trends in ZkSync technology?

The most significant future development for ZkSync is the introduction of ZkSync 2.0, which is expected to support EVM-compatible smart contracts. This will allow developers to write and deploy smart contracts in a similar way to Ethereum, but with the benefits of Layer-2. Beyond that, the team behind ZkSync is continuously working on enhancing its technology, and we can expect further advancements in scalability, security, and usability as the project evolves.

Can ZkSync handle network congestion and scalability issues?

Yes, ZkSync is specifically designed to address network congestion and scalability issues. By processing transactions off-chain and aggregating them into zkRollup proofs posted on the Ethereum mainnet, ZkSync significantly improves the scalability of the Ethereum network, reducing congestion and allowing for a higher throughput of transactions.

What are some notable projects or companies that are using ZkSync?

Several notable projects and companies are utilizing ZkSync for their blockchain applications. Some examples include 1Inch, a decentralized exchange aggregator that picks the cheapest crypto prices; Mini Mini Dungeon, a layer-2 play-to-earn game; and Forward Protocol, the WordPress for Web 3.0. These projects leverage ZkSync to enhance transaction speed, reduce costs, and provide a better user experience.

How can developers build on ZkSync?

Developers can build on ZkSync by utilizing the developer documentation, tools, and SDKs provided by the ZkSync team. They can leverage the ZkSync software development kit to integrate ZkSync functionality into their applications, enabling faster and more cost-effective transactions. The ZkSync ecosystem also encourages collaboration and community engagement, offering support and resources for developers looking to leverage the capabilities of ZkSync in their projects.


ZkSync is a pioneering Layer-2 solution, introducing innovative ways to enhance Ethereum’s scalability while preserving its inherent security. As the world of blockchain technology continues to mature and evolve, solutions like ZkSync are set to play a pivotal role in shaping the future of digital transactions, applications, and services. By understanding the nuances of ZkSync, we can better appreciate the potential of Layer-2 solutions and their capacity to address some of the most pressing issues within the blockchain ecosystem.


What is the core technology behind ZkSync?

The core technology behind ZkSync is zkRollups, a type of Layer-2 solution that uses zero-knowledge proofs to ensure transaction validity while processing transactions off-chain for enhanced scalability.

Can ZkSync work with non-Ethereum blockchains?

Currently, ZkSync is built specifically for Ethereum. While the principles behind it could potentially be applied to other blockchains, each implementation would require careful consideration of the unique characteristics and security models of the underlying blockchain.

Is it possible to run a full node for ZkSync?

Running a full node for ZkSync is different from Layer-1 blockchains. Since ZkSync is a Layer-2 solution, its data is stored on the Ethereum mainnet, while computation is performed off-chain.

How can I integrate my decentralized application (dApp) with ZkSync?

ZkSync provides developer documentation and SDKs to facilitate integration. With the planned support for EVM-compatible smart contracts, dApps built for Ethereum can be adapted for ZkSync with minimal changes.

How does ZkSync contribute to the sustainability of blockchain technology?

By processing transactions off-chain, ZkSync reduces the computational load on the Ethereum network, contributing to a more sustainable and efficient blockchain ecosystem.

Disclaimer. The information provided is not trading advice. Cryptopolitan.com holds no liability for any investments made based on the information provided on this page. We strongly recommend independent research and/or consultation with a qualified professional before making any investment decisions.

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Micah Abiodun

Micah is a crypto enthusiast with a strong understanding of the crypto industry and its potential for shaping the future. A result-driven Chemical Engineer (with a specialization in the field of process engineering and piping design), Micah visualizes and articulates the intricate details of blockchain ecosystems. In his free time, he explores various interests, including sports and music.

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