Post-Merge Ethereum Ecosystem: Far-Reaching Implications of Proof of Stake

In the ever-evolving landscape of cryptocurrencies, milestones are marked not only by the value of digital assets but by the transformative shifts that redefine the underlying technology. Among these transformative moments in Ethereum’s history, “The Merge” stands as a significant turning point.

The Merge, which unfolded on September 15, 2022, wasn’t just another upgrade for Ethereum; it was a seismic shift. It marked the culmination of Ethereum’s transition from the energy-intensive Proof of Work (PoW) consensus mechanism to the more sustainable and environmentally friendly Proof of Stake (PoS) system. This transition was not merely a technical upgrade; it was a profound reimagining of how Ethereum operated, with far-reaching implications for its supply dynamics, environmental impact, and decentralization.

This article dives into the repercussions of The Merge one year after its implementation. It explores the reduction in Ethereum’s supply, the rise of Liquid Staking Tokens (LSTs), and the challenges posed by the growing dominance of specific protocols. Join us on a journey through the post-Merge Ethereum ecosystem, where supply shrinks, deflation looms, and decentralization remains a critical concern.

Supply Reduction and Deflationary Ethereum

The Merge brought about fundamental changes to Ethereum’s economic landscape, reshaping the issuance of Ether (ETH) and setting the stage for a deflationary future.

The Merge’s Supply Dynamics

The Merge, celebrated as Ethereum’s leap into a greener and more sustainable future, achieved a substantial reduction in the issuance of new Ether. Prior to The Merge, Ethereum operated on the energy-intensive Proof of Work (PoW) consensus mechanism, where miners were rewarded with freshly minted ETH for validating transactions.

With The Merge’s transition to Proof of Stake (PoS), a remarkable transformation occurred. New daily Ether issuance plummeted by over 80%, from 13,500 ETH to a mere 2,300 ETH. This significant reduction reflects Ethereum’s commitment to controlling inflation and managing its monetary policy with greater precision.

The Concept of Deflationary Ethereum

The notion of Ethereum becoming a deflationary asset gained traction after The Merge. The key driving force behind this shift is Ethereum’s burn mechanism. Unlike the PoW era, where miners were rewarded with ETH, PoS validators earn their rewards primarily through transaction fees. Importantly, a portion of these fees is permanently burned, effectively taking ETH out of circulation.

In essence, Ethereum’s economic model has evolved to prioritize the removal of ETH from circulation, creating a scenario where the supply of ETH is poised to shrink over time. This deflationary characteristic aligns with the broader economic principle that often underpins cryptocurrencies – a capped or diminishing supply.

ETH Permanently Removed from Supply

One year after The Merge, Ethereum has witnessed nearly 1 million ETH being permanently removed from its supply. This monumental reduction signifies the success of Ethereum’s deflationary mission. To put it into perspective, this decrease translates to almost 300,000 fewer ETH in circulation than at the time of The Merge’s implementation.

In the world of cryptocurrencies, where tokenomics play a crucial role in shaping investor sentiment, Ethereum’s journey toward becoming a deflationary asset is a significant milestone. It underscores the network’s commitment to sustainability and responsible monetary policy, setting Ethereum on a distinctive path in the ever-evolving crypto landscape.

Rise of Liquid Staking Tokens (LSTs)

The evolution of Ethereum’s ecosystem post-The Merge gave rise to a new breed of digital assets known as Liquid Staking Tokens (LSTs), fundamentally altering the landscape of staked Ether.

The Role of The Merge and Ethereum’s Shanghai Upgrade

The catalyst for the emergence of Liquid Staking Tokens (LSTs) can be traced back to The Merge, Ethereum’s monumental shift from Proof of Work (PoW) to Proof of Stake (PoS). This transition fundamentally changed how Ether (ETH) was secured and rewarded within the network. Additionally, the subsequent Ethereum Shanghai upgrade, implemented in April, enabled the withdrawal of staked ETH, setting the stage for the LST boom.

Understanding Liquid Staking Tokens

LSTs are a novel category of digital assets that represent underlying positions of staked Ether (ETH). They serve as a bridge between the world of staking and decentralized finance (DeFi). Essentially, when an individual stakes their ETH within the PoS system, they receive a corresponding amount of LSTs in return. These tokens can then be freely traded on cryptocurrency exchanges or utilized within various DeFi applications.

LSTs offer a level of flexibility that traditional staked assets lack. Holders of LSTs can actively participate in DeFi activities, lend their assets, or simply trade them, all while their underlying staked ETH continues to earn staking rewards in the PoS system.

Adoption of Liquid Staking Tokens

The adoption of Liquid Staking Tokens has witnessed remarkable growth, solidifying their place within the Ethereum ecosystem. At present, approximately 10.8 million ETH, equivalent to 42.5% of all staked Ether, is held within liquid staking protocols. This surge in adoption underscores the demand for LSTs and their pivotal role in expanding the utility of staked assets.

Key Liquid Staking Protocols

Several liquid staking protocols have garnered significant attention and adoption within the Ethereum community. Notable among these is Lido, which stands as one of the top LST providers. Lido’s ecosystem has witnessed substantial growth, with ETH holdings increasing by an impressive 82%, reaching 8.6 million ETH since the beginning of the year.

Additionally, Coinbase’s entry into the LST space with cbETH has added to the diversity of available options for users seeking to leverage their staked ETH. Rocket Pool’s rETH also holds a notable position, with 450,000 ETH locked within the protocol.

The rise of Liquid Staking Tokens exemplifies Ethereum’s capacity for innovation and adaptability. It has not only expanded the utility of staked assets but has also provided users with newfound flexibility and opportunities within the DeFi landscape. As the Ethereum ecosystem continues to evolve, Liquid Staking Tokens remain a prominent and dynamic element in this ever-changing blockchain narrative.

Lido’s Dominance and Centralization Concerns

While Liquid Staking Tokens (LSTs) have ushered in a new era of flexibility and utility within the Ethereum network, concerns have arisen regarding the growing dominance of one particular protocol, Lido, and its implications for centralization.

Lido’s Unprecedented Dominance

Lido, as one of the prominent players in the LST ecosystem, has seen remarkable growth in its holdings of staked Ether (ETH). Since the beginning of the year, Lido’s ETH holdings have surged by an impressive 82%, skyrocketing from 4.6 million ETH to 8.6 million ETH. This staggering accumulation underscores Lido’s dominance within the staking landscape.

Centralization Concerns

The rapid ascent of Lido’s ETH holdings has triggered valid concerns about centralization within the Ethereum network. The essence of blockchain technology lies in its decentralized nature, where decision-making power and control are distributed among a diverse set of participants. However, when a single entity or protocol amasses a substantial portion of staked assets, the delicate balance of decentralization is disrupted.

Governance Challenges and Potential Attacks

Lido’s dominance raises a critical question: What happens when a protocol becomes a major stakeholder within the network? Centralization of this nature can potentially lead to governance challenges, where a single entity wields disproportionate influence over network decisions, creating an environment ripe for conflicts of interest.

Furthermore, if Lido’s dominance remains unchecked, it could facilitate governance attacks against the Ethereum network. In such a scenario, a protocol with significant influence could push for changes that primarily serve its own interests, undermining the principles of decentralization that Ethereum holds dear.

Vitalik Buterin’s Recommendations

Recognizing the need to maintain a balanced and decentralized ecosystem, Ethereum’s co-founder, Vitalik Buterin, has offered recommendations. Buterin proposed that staking providers controlling more than 15% of staked ETH should actively raise user fees to deter adoption until their dominance falls below this threshold.

This recommendation serves as a proactive measure to prevent excessive centralization and to encourage a diverse and inclusive staking environment. It emphasizes the importance of maintaining the ethos of decentralization that is at the core of blockchain technology.

The Path Forward

With The Merge marking a significant milestone in Ethereum’s history, it’s crucial to assess the achievements and challenges that lie ahead.

Achievements of The Merge

The implementation of The Merge brought forth a transformative shift for Ethereum. It drastically reduced the supply of new Ether (ETH) through an 80% reduction in daily issuance, steering Ethereum toward deflationary territory. The burn mechanism, combined with Proof of Stake (PoS), paved the way for Ethereum to become a more environmentally sustainable and cost-efficient network.

Addressing Decentralization and Governance

While Ethereum has made substantial progress in reducing supply and environmental impact, it has not been without its share of concerns. Centralization and governance issues, exemplified by Lido’s dominance, have come to the forefront. 

Ethereum recognizes the need to strike a delicate balance between innovation and decentralization. Vitalik Buterin’s recommendations, aimed at curbing excessive dominance by staking providers, serve as a step toward preserving the network’s democratic nature.

Ongoing Developments and Upgrades

Ethereum’s journey does not end with The Merge. The network remains committed to enhancing efficiency and the user experience. Ethereum Improvement Proposal (EIP)-4844, known as “proto-danksharding,” is on the horizon. 

This upgrade is poised to reduce gas fees and increase transaction throughput, addressing one of the pressing concerns of the Ethereum community. By introducing data blobs that efficiently process and store data, Ethereum seeks to remain at the forefront of blockchain innovation.

The Future of Ethereum

As Ethereum navigates the path forward, its future holds great promise. The network has weathered challenges, adapted to evolving landscapes, and remained a stalwart in the cryptocurrency world. 

Ethereum’s role extends beyond being a blockchain; it is a platform for innovation, a catalyst for change, and a beacon of decentralization. In the ever-evolving cryptocurrency landscape, Ethereum remains poised to lead the charge, offering solutions to real-world problems and reshaping the way we envision the future of finance and technology.


In the aftermath of Ethereum’s momentous transition, known as The Merge, several pivotal takeaways have emerged, steering the course of this pioneering blockchain network.

The Merge ushered in a significant shift in Ethereum’s history, manifesting an impressive 80% reduction in daily Ether issuance. This transformation catapulted Ethereum towards a deflationary future. Concurrently, the introduction of Liquid Staking Tokens (LSTs) unveiled a new layer of versatility. LSTs empower users to engage in trading and delve into DeFi applications, leveraging their staked Ether. Nonetheless, concerns have arisen due to Lido’s prominent stature within the LST ecosystem, raising valid apprehensions regarding centralization and governance.

The ascent of Lido’s ETH holdings has underscored a pressing concern – centralization within the Ethereum network. The intricate balance of decentralization, a cornerstone of blockchain technology, risks disruption when a singular entity amasses substantial control. In response to these challenges, Vitalik Buterin’s recommendations for staking providers aim to mitigate the looming risk and preserve Ethereum’s democratic essence.

The Merge signifies not an endpoint but rather a transformative milestone in Ethereum’s journey. It signifies a reduction in supply, an augmentation of environmental sustainability, and a clarion call to address decentralization challenges. Ethereum’s role transcends mere blockchain; it embodies innovation, metamorphosis, and decentralization.

As Ethereum continues its evolutionary path, it becomes imperative for stakeholders and enthusiasts to remain well-informed and ardently engaged. The ongoing developments and governance decisions within Ethereum will unequivocally sculpt its trajectory in the months ahead. The cryptocurrency domain thrives on dynamism, and Ethereum stands as a paragon of innovation and change.


What is The Merge in Ethereum?

The Merge is Ethereum's transition from proof-of-work (PoW) to proof-of-stake (PoS) consensus, reducing energy use.

How much ETH has been burned post-Merge?

Nearly 1 million ETH has been burned since The Merge.

What are Liquid Staking Tokens (LSTs)?

LSTs represent staked Ether that can be traded or used in DeFi.

Why is Lido's dominance concerning?

Lido's control over staked ETH raises centralization and governance worries.

What's Ethereum's path forward?

Ethereum aims to address centralization, enhance efficiency, and innovate in the cryptocurrency landscape.

Disclaimer. The information provided is not trading advice. Cryptopolitan.com holds no liability for any investments made based on the information provided on this page. We strongly recommend independent research and/or consultation with a qualified professional before making any investment decisions.

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