Cambridge University study sheds new light on Bitcoin mining’s environmental impact

In this post:

  • The study traces the advancements in Bitcoin mining hardware, from CPUs to ASICs, highlighting how modern devices are far more efficient and longer-lasting than their predecessors.
  • Contrary to popular belief, the study shows that Bitcoin’s energy consumption is decreasing, with the 2023 estimate standing at 70.4 TWh, which is only about 0.38% of the world’s total electricity consumption.
  • The research challenges the notion that Bitcoin mining is a leading cause of global warming and suggests that with the adoption of renewable energy sources, its environmental impact is likely to decrease further.

In a groundbreaking study, researchers from Cambridge University and the Cambridge Bitcoin Electricity Consumption Index (CBECI) team have released updated data that challenges prevailing narratives about the environmental impact of Bitcoin mining. The study, which builds upon previous research, aims to provide a more nuanced understanding of the electricity consumption associated with Bitcoin mining and its implications for global energy use. As Bitcoin continues to gain traction worldwide, the study serves as a timely intervention in ongoing debates about the cryptocurrency’s environmental footprint.

The evolution of Bitcoin mining hardware: From CPUs to ASICs

One of the most compelling aspects of the study is its detailed examination of the evolution of Bitcoin mining hardware. In the early days of Bitcoin, mining was a relatively simple affair, carried out on standard personal computers using central processing units (CPUs). However, as the price of Bitcoin soared and competition intensified, the need for more efficient mining hardware became evident.

The study traces the technological advancements in mining hardware, starting with the shift from CPUs to graphics processing units (GPUs) in 2010. GPUs offered a six-fold increase in efficiency, making them the go-to choice for miners. The innovation didn’t stop there; by 2011, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) entered the scene, eventually giving way to application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) in 2012. ASICs revolutionized Bitcoin mining, offering unparalleled efficiency due to their smaller chip sizes.

Today, the mining hardware landscape has evolved dramatically, with devices like the Bitmain Antminer S19 XP and MicroBT Whatsminer M53S++ boasting hash rates far exceeding their predecessors. Contrary to earlier assumptions about rapid obsolescence, these advancements have led to more profitable and longer-lasting mining devices.

Rethinking energy consumption: The numbers tell a different story

The study also delves into the contentious issue of Bitcoin’s energy consumption, offering data that may surprise critics and proponents. According to the study’s revised estimates, Bitcoin’s energy consumption in 2022 was 95.5 TWh, roughly equivalent to the electricity consumption of entire countries. However, the 2023 estimate shows a significant reduction to 70.4 TWh. To put these figures into context, Bitcoin’s energy consumption is comparable to that used by all tumble dryers in the United States (108 TWh) and the renewable energy curtailment in China (105 TWh). In global terms, Bitcoin mining accounts for approximately 0.38% of the world’s total electricity consumption.

These findings challenge the notion that Bitcoin mining is a leading cause of global warming. With an increasing number of significant companies adopting renewable energy sources for Bitcoin mining, the study suggests that the environmental impact of this activity is likely to decrease further.


The Cambridge University study serves as a wake-up call for those quick to demonize Bitcoin mining as an environmental scourge. The study invites a more nuanced discussion on the issue by providing a comprehensive look at the evolution of mining hardware and presenting updated data on energy consumption. As the crypto industry evolves, ongoing research is essential for understanding its true environmental impact.

Disclaimer. The information provided is not trading advice. Cryptopolitan.com holds no liability for any investments made based on the information provided on this page. We strongly recommend independent research and/or consultation with a qualified professional before making any investment decisions.

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