Symmetric vs. Asymmetric Encryption


Encryption is the process of converting plain text into a coded format using an algorithm and a secret key. The coded data can only be decrypted and read by someone who has the correct decryption key. In a blockchain, encryption is used to ensure the security and privacy of transactions, data, and other sensitive information. Encryption protects the information from unauthorized access, theft, and tampering. There are two types of encryption, and with this guide, we’re going to explore each of them so you can get to know everything about them.

Symmetric encryption

Symmetric encryption, also known as shared secret encryption, is a type of encryption where the same secret key is used to both encrypt and decrypt the data. In symmetric encryption, both the sender and the recipient of the message or data share the same secret key. The sender uses the key to encrypt the data and send it to the recipient. The recipient then uses the same key to decrypt the data and read its contents.


  1. Speed: Symmetric encryption is much faster than asymmetric encryption, making it well-suited for large amounts of data.
  2. Ease of Implementation: Symmetric encryption is relatively easy to implement and understand, making it a popular choice for use in blockchain technology.
  3. Secure Key Management: Symmetric encryption requires only one key, which is easier to manage and secure than multiple keys.
  4. Scalability: Symmetric encryption can easily be scaled to handle large amounts of data.
  5. Cost-Effective: Symmetric encryption is generally more cost-effective than asymmetric encryption.


  1. Key Sharing: One of the main limitations of symmetric encryption is that the key must be shared between the sender and the recipient, which creates a potential security risk.
  2. Key Management Complexity: If the key is lost or compromised, all of the data encrypted with that key is also lost, which can result in significant data loss.
  3. Inability to Verify the Identity of Sender: Symmetric encryption does not provide a means of verifying the identity of the sender, making it susceptible to man-in-the-middle attacks.

Asymmetric encryption

Asymmetric encryption, also known as public key encryption, is a type of encryption where two different keys are used to encrypt and decrypt the data. One key is used to encrypt the data (the public key) and the other key is used to decrypt the data (the private key).


  1. Security: Asymmetric encryption provides a higher level of security than symmetric encryption, as the private key can be kept secret and only used to decrypt the data.
  2. Identity Verification: Asymmetric encryption allows for the verification of the identity of the sender, as the recipient can use the sender’s public key to encrypt a response.
  3. Digital Signatures: Asymmetric encryption can be used to create digital signatures, which provide a means of authenticating the identity of the sender.
  4. Scalability: Asymmetric encryption can easily be scaled to handle large amounts of data.
  5. Key Management: Asymmetric encryption provides a more secure and flexible means of managing encryption keys than symmetric encryption.


  1. Slower Speed: Asymmetric encryption is slower than symmetric encryption, making it less well-suited for large amounts of data.
  2. Complexity: Asymmetric encryption is more complex than symmetric encryption and requires a higher level of technical expertise to implement.
  3. Increased Resource Requirements: Asymmetric encryption requires more computational resources than symmetric encryption, which can result in increased costs and reduced performance.

Comparison between Symmetric and Asymmetric Encryption

A. Similarities: Both symmetric and asymmetric encryption aim to ensure the privacy and security of data in blockchain technology.

B. Differences: The main difference between the two is the way they encrypt and decrypt data. Symmetric encryption uses the same key for both encryption and decryption, while asymmetric encryption uses two different keys. Symmetric encryption is faster but less secure, while asymmetric encryption is slower but provides a higher level of security.

Use Cases of Encryption in Blockchain

A. Confidentiality and Data Privacy: Encryption in blockchain can be used to ensure the confidentiality and privacy of transactions and other sensitive information stored on the blockchain.

B. Digital Signatures and Authentication: Encryption in blockchain can be used to create digital signatures, which are used to verify the authenticity of a transaction or message. This ensures that the information has not been tampered with or altered in any way.

C. Secure Communication: Encryption in blockchain can be used to securely communicate between parties without the risk of the data being intercepted or compromised.

Cryptocurrencies and encryption

Cryptocurrency transactions are secured through the use of encryption, which helps to ensure the privacy and security of the transaction and the underlying funds. For example, in the case of Bitcoin, transactions are secured through the use of public-key cryptography. Each user has a public key, which is used to receive funds, and a private key, which is used to sign transactions. When a user wants to send Bitcoin to another user, the transaction is broadcast to the network, and the recipient’s public key is used to verify the transaction. The transaction is considered valid only if it is signed using the sender’s private key. In addition to securing transactions, encryption is also used in many other aspects of cryptocurrencies, including the creation of new coins through mining, the protection of user accounts, and the confidentiality of user data.

History of encryption

Encryption has a long and fascinating history dating back to ancient civilizations. One of the earliest examples of encryption is the use of ciphers by the ancient Greeks, who used simple substitution ciphers to protect secret messages. The Romans also used encryption, with Julius Caesar famously using a substitution cipher that shifted letters by a fixed number.

In the Middle Ages, the use of ciphers became more sophisticated, with polyalphabetic ciphers being introduced. These ciphers used multiple alphabets to encode a message, making it more difficult for attackers to break the code. During World War I and II, cryptography played a critical role in military communications, with both the Allies and the Axis powers developing sophisticated encryption algorithms to protect their communications.

This led to the development of mechanical and electromechanical machines such as the Enigma machine, which were used to encrypt and decrypt messages. With the advent of computers, cryptography advanced rapidly. In the 1970s and 1980s, the development of public-key cryptography and the RSA algorithm revolutionized encryption, making it possible to securely exchange keys over an insecure channel and to digitally sign messages. In recent years, encryption has become widely used to protect sensitive information in the digital age.

With the increasing use of the internet and mobile devices, encryption has become an essential tool for ensuring privacy and security in online communications and storage. Today, encryption is used in a wide range of applications, from securing financial transactions to protecting sensitive government and military communications. With the growing threat of cyber attacks and increasing concerns over privacy, encryption continues to play a critical role in the digital world.


Symmetric and asymmetric encryption are two fundamental forms of encryption that play a crucial role in ensuring the security of data and communications, which is the basis of blockchain technology. Both forms of encryption have their advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of which to use depends on the specific requirements of the situation.

In today’s world, where data security is of utmost importance, encryption plays a crucial role in ensuring the privacy and confidentiality of information. With the increasing prevalence of cyber threats and the need for secure communication, it is essential to understand and utilize these forms of encryption effectively.

Disclaimer. The information provided is not trading advice. Cryptopolitan.com holds no liability for any investments made based on the information provided on this page. We strongly recommend independent research and/or consultation with a qualified professional before making any investment decisions.


What is SSL/TLS encryption?

SSL/TLS encryption is a protocol used to secure Internet communication by encrypting data transmitted between a web server and a web browser.

What is the difference between encryption and hashing?

Encryption is the process of converting plain text into an unreadable form for secure transmission or storage, while hashing is the process of converting plain text into a fixed-length output known as a hash value.

What is end-to-end encryption?

End-to-end encryption is a method of secure communication where only the sender and the recipient can read the message, and no one else, not even the service provider, can access the content of the message.

What is RSA encryption?

RSA encryption is an asymmetric encryption algorithm used to securely transmit information over the internet.

What is a man-in-the-middle attack in encryption?

A man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack is a type of security breach where an attacker intercepts and alters communication between two parties. This can compromise the security of encrypted messages if proper measures, such as encryption and digital signatures, are not used.

What is a brute force attack in encryption?

A brute force attack is a method of trying every possible combination of inputs to decrypt an encrypted message. This can be used to crack encryption keys, but is impractical for strong encryption algorithms due to the large number of possible inputs.

How does encryption protect against hackers?

Encryption protects against hackers by converting plaintext into ciphertext, making it unreadable to unauthorized users. Even if a hacker is able to access the encrypted data, they will not be able to read it without the decryption key.

Alden Baldwin

Alden Baldwin

Journalist, Writer, Editor, Researcher, and Strategic Media Manager: With over 10 years of experience in the digital, print and public relations industries, he has been working with the mantra, Creativity, Quality and Punctuality. In his waning years promises to build a a self sustaining institute that provides free education. He is working towards funding his own startup. As a technical and language editor, he has worked with multiple top cryptocurrency publications such as DailyCoin, Inside Bitcoins, Urbanlink Magazine, Crypto Unit News and several others. He has edited over 50,000+ articles, journals, scripts, copies, sales campaign headlines, biographies, newsletters, cover letters, product descriptions, landing pages, business plans, SOPs, e-books, and several other kinds of content.

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