ZK-Email Enhanced Security: Clave Introduces Universal Recovery


  • ZK-Email, a groundbreaking approach in blockchain technology, faces significant challenges including the necessity for DNS key rotation, high transaction gas costs, and the need for improved user experience.
  • Overcoming these hurdles is essential for the widespread adoption and effectiveness of ZKEmail and Universal Recovery, which are key to bringing the next billion users into the Ethereum and broader blockchain ecosystem.

The Clave team, in its continuous effort to enhance user experience and security in the Web3 space, has introduced a groundbreaking solution called “Universal Recovery.” This innovative approach utilizes ZK-Email technology to address a crucial challenge in social recovery mechanisms within blockchain systems.

Universal Recovery aims to simplify the process of account recovery, making it more accessible to a broader range of internet users, including those without on-chain wallets.

Overcoming limitations in social recovery

Traditional social recovery systems in blockchain require guardians to have onchain wallets, limiting the pool of potential guardians to those within the blockchain community. The requirement often excludes important individuals in a user’s life who may not be part of the blockchain world but are crucial for account recovery, such as family members or friends without onchain wallets. To overcome the limitation, the Clave team has leveraged ZK-Email technology. With over 4 billion people having email addresses, the ability to create onchain wallets using only a user’s email could revolutionize the guardian system. The implementation of ZK-Email’s tech stack makes it possible, allowing any internet user to become a guardian for an onchain account.

The Clave team developed a Proof of Concept (POC) for a recovery mechanism compatible with EIP-4337 standards, employing passkeys for seamless onboarding and incorporating Universal Recovery for account recovery. The system enables users to appoint anyone with an email address as guardians, significantly expanding the scope of secure account recovery options. The Universal Recovery Module, following the structure of Clave Module Contracts, allows the recovery process to be initiated and executed by checking the zero-knowledge proof created by the relayer using emails sent by the guardian. The process changes the public key that allows the contract to be managed, enabling the user to regain control of the account.

The mechanics of ZK-Email 

ZK-Email enhances blockchain security by verifying the DKIM signature of emails on the blockchain, effectively bridging Web2 and Web3 technologies. The verification process maintains user privacy and the integrity of email-based blockchain interactions. By utilizing the method, ZK-Email ensures that email identities are securely and privately validated, providing a reliable and efficient way to integrate traditional email systems with the advanced security features of blockchain technology.

 While the ZK-Email approach marks a significant innovation in blockchain technology, it is not without its challenges. Key among these is the need for DNS key rotation, which is essential for maintaining the integrity of email verification but currently lacks a trustless mechanism on blockchains.

Additionally, the high gas costs associated with transactions using ZK-Email, estimated at around 1.2M gas, present a financial hurdle, even for Layer 2 solutions. Improving the user experience, particularly in simplifying the process of using email for account recovery, is another critical area that needs attention. Addressing these challenges is vital for the successful widespread adoption of ZKEmail and Universal Recovery, which are pivotal in onboarding the next billion users to Ethereum and expanding the reach of blockchain technology.


The introduction of Universal Recovery using ZK-Email by the Clave team marks a significant advancement in the Web3 space. It not only enhances the security and accessibility of account recovery but also broadens the potential user base for blockchain technology. As the team continues to refine the technology, addressing existing challenges, Universal Recovery is poised to become a pivotal tool in making the Web3 experience more inclusive and user-friendly.

Disclaimer. The information provided is not trading advice. Cryptopolitan.com holds no liability for any investments made based on the information provided on this page. We strongly recommend independent research and/or consultation with a qualified professional before making any investment decisions.

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Haseeb Shaheen

As a Web Researcher and Internet Marketer, Haseeb Shaheen delivers relevant valuable content for audiences. He focuses on financial and crypto market analysis, as well as technology-related areas that help people change their lives.

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